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How Carbohydrates are Digested in the Duodenum

Carbohydrates are one of the primary sources of energy for humans. However, in order to extract the energy and use it for vital functions, they must be broken down into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body. This vital conversion process of carbohydrates into simple sugar like glucose begins in the mouth, continues in the stomach, and resumes in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

Process of Carbohydrate Digestion

There are three types of carbohydrates: starch, sugar, and fiber. All of them need to be broken down into simple sugars like glucose, fructose, or galactose before they can be absorbed.

The process of carbohydrate digestion starts in the mouth. The salivary glands secrete an enzyme called amylase that breaks down long chains of starch into smaller polysaccharides and disaccharides.

Once the food enters the stomach, the acidic environment denatures the salivary amylase enzymes, and carbohydrate digestion stops temporarily. However, when the food reaches the duodenum, the pancreas and liver release enzymes that continue the process of carbohydrate digestion.

Role of Pancreatic Juice and Bile

The pancreas releases pancreatic juice into the duodenum that contains pancreatic amylase to further break down complex carbohydrates like starch, glycogen, and maltose into smaller units. This pancreatic juice also contains other enzymes that digest proteins and fats.

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Bile produced by the liver also plays an important role in carbohydrate digestion. It helps emulsify fats and improve the efficiency of pancreatic amylase. Additionally, bile contains the enzyme sucrase, which breaks down sucrose (table sugar) into glucose and fructose.

Initiation of Carbohydrate Digestion

Before the complex carbohydrates from food can be broken down in the duodenum, they need to be exposed to the pancreatic juices that contain enzymes required for digestion. This requires acid neutralization of the partially digested food coming from the stomach. The duodenal mucosa releases the hormone secretin that signals the pancreas to release pancreatic juice.

The pancreas releases sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the hydrochloric acid coming from the stomach. This provides an optimal environment for pancreatic enzymes to carry out their functions.

The release of secretin also stimulates the liver to produce bile, which is transported via the common bile duct to the duodenum. Bile helps to release the nutrients from the complex carb structures.

Interesting Research Findings

Recent studies have shown that gut microbes play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. Gut microbes such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli break down carbohydrates that the human digestive system cannot handle, producing short-chain fatty acids like acetate, propionate, and butyrate that promote gut health.

Another study found that a high-fiber diet can enhance gut microbiota and improve carbohydrate metabolism. Dietary fiber is difficult to digest, but when it reaches the colon, it is fermented into compounds that serve as nourishment for the gut microbiota.

Practical Tips for Better Digestive Health

To improve digestive health, consume a diet that is rich in fiber, fruits, and vegetables. Chew your food slowly and thoroughly, so the saliva begins to break down carbohydrates in the mouth. Avoid eating too many processed foods, especially those with high sugar content.

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Additionally, you can consume probiotic-rich foods like yogurt or kefir to improve your gut microbiota, providing greater efficiency of overall digestion.

Key Takeaways

  • Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth, continues in the stomach and resumes in the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
  • Pancreatic juice containing amylase, along with bile produced in the liver, are essential components that help break down carbohydrates into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body.
  • Neutralizing the partially digested food coming from the stomach is essential to expose complex carbohydrates to pancreatic juices, which kickstarts the process of carbohydrate digestion.
  • Fiber-rich diets are beneficial for carbohydrate digestion and for healthy gut microbiota. Avoid processed foods and consume probiotic-rich foods to promote efficient digestion and overall digestive health.


Q: What happens if the body gets too much glucose?

A: Excess glucose is usually stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle tissue. However, if there is an excess amount of glycogen, it can be stored as fat.

Q: What happens if we don’t digest our carbohydrates properly?

A: Poor carbohydrate digestion may cause bloating, gas, and related digestive issues. In extreme cases, it may lead to malabsorption and nutrient deficiencies.

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